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Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Digestive System Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Diagnostic Techniques, Otological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Digestive System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.MycosesContrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)United StatesInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.