Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.DextranaseFluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.DEAE-Dextran: Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Laryngeal Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight: A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.MoscowSilicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.USSRQuartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.RussiaCounterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.