The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced)
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.
An anthrocycline from a Streptomyces nogalater variant. It is a cytolytic antineoplastic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 188.8.131.52.
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
DNA Polymerase beta
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Free Radical Scavengers
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Encyclopedias as Topic
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.