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Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Denture, Complete, Upper: A complete denture replacing all the natural maxillary teeth and associated maxillary structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying maxillary bone.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Acrylic ResinsDenture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Denture, Complete, Lower: A complete denture replacing all the natural mandibular teeth and associated structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying mandibular bone.Denture Cleansers: Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.Denture Liners: Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Denture Rebasing: The process of refitting a denture by replacing the denture base material without changing the occlusal relations of the teeth. Rebasing may include adding to the denture base to compensate for resorptive changes to subjacent structures.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Denture, Partial: A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.Denture Repair: The process of reuniting or replacing broken or worn parts of a denture.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Denture, Overlay: Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.Denture, Partial, Fixed, Resin-Bonded: A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Dental Clasps: Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Jaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Denture Identification Marking: Any system of defining ownership of dentures or dental prostheses.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Fluorocarbon PolymersPolycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Microbiological Processes: Physiological functions, activities, and interactions of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Dental Occlusion, Balanced: Dental occlusion in which the occlusal contact of the teeth on the working side of the jaw is accompanied by the harmonious contact of the teeth on the opposite (balancing) side. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556)Denture Precision Attachment: A precision device used for attaching a fixed or removable partial denture to the crown of an abutment tooth or a restoration. One type is the intracoronal attachment and the other type is the extracoronal attachment. It consists of a female portion within the coronal portion of the crown of an abutment and a fitted male portion attached to the denture proper. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p85; from Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p264)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Dental Restoration Wear: Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Denture, Partial, Temporary: A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.