KansasDental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Compomers: Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesMasseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Dental Occlusion, Traumatic: An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures.Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome: Rare, autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by ACRO-OSTEOLYSIS, generalized OSTEOPOROSIS, and skull deformations.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Exfoliation Syndrome: The deposition of flaky, translucent fibrillar material most conspicuous on the anterior lens capsule and pupillary margin but also in both surfaces of the iris, the zonules, trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, corneal endothelium, and orbital blood vessels. It sometimes forms a membrane on the anterior iris surface. Exfoliation refers to the shedding of pigment by the iris. (Newell, Ophthalmology, 7th ed, p380)Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Hypophosphatasia: A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cherubism: A fibro-osseous hereditary disease of the jaws. The swollen jaws and raised eyes give a cherubic appearance; multiple radiolucencies are evident upon radiographic examination.Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome: Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Pathology, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with pathology of the oral cavity.Mouth DiseasesDiagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Vasoplegia: Condition of low SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE that develops secondary to other conditions such as ANAPHYLAXIS; SEPSIS; SURGICAL SHOCK; and SEPTIC SHOCK. Vasoplegia that develops during or post surgery (e.g., CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS) is called postoperative vasoplegic syndrome or vasoplegic syndrome.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Chalcogens: The elements OXYGEN; POLONIUM; SELENIUM; SULFUR; and TELLURIUM; that form group 16 (formerly group VI) of the periodic table.Acrylic ResinsDental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Chemistry, Bioinorganic: Field of chemistry pertaining to the study of inorganic compounds or ions and their interactions with biological ligands at the molecular level.AcrylatesCopper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.