The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).