Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Cucumis: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for cucumber (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) and cantaloupe (CUCUMIS MELO). Watermelon is a different genus, CITRULLUS. Bitter melon may refer to MOMORDICA or this genus.Raphanus: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Crocus: A plant genus, in the IRIDACEAE family, known as a source of Saffron.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Lawsonia Plant: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE that is the source of henna and has cytotoxic activity.Peronospora: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.Lathyrus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE known for LATHYRISM poisoning.Ascorbate Oxidase: An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 188.8.131.52.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glutamate Synthase (NADH): A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Protochlorophyllide: A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.