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Cryptococcus gattii: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Bromthymol Blue: A pH sensitive dye that has been used as an indicator in many laboratory reactions.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Neosartorya: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Some species can cause opportunistic infections in humans, similar to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.TriazolesTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.