Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.AlaskaTranslations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.SculptureArtHumanitiesFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.PeruCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Bartonella bacilliformis: The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.BrazilPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Evaluation StudiesEvaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Capgras Syndrome: A psychotic disorder characterized by the patient's belief that acquaintances or closely related persons have been replaced by doubles or imposters.BooksLinguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)