Coxa Vara: Hip deformity in which the femoral neck leans forward resulting in a decrease in the angle between femoral neck and its shaft. It may be congenital often syndromic, acquired, or developmental.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalOsteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Coxa Valga: Hip deformity in which the angle between the femoral neck and its shaft is increased. It may be congenital, acquired, or developmental.Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.Femoracetabular Impingement: A pathological mechanical process that can lead to hip failure. It is caused by abnormalities of the ACETABULUM and/or FEMUR combined with rigorous hip motion, leading to repetitive collisions that damage the soft tissue structures.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)EstersFemur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE involving only one bone.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Joint DiseasesFemur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Gait: Manner or style of walking.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pericarditis, Tuberculous: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary: Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.Chondrodysplasia Punctata: A heterogeneous group of bone dysplasias, the common character of which is stippling of the epiphyses in infancy. The group includes a severe autosomal recessive form (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC), an autosomal dominant form (Conradi-Hunermann syndrome), and a milder X-linked form. Metabolic defects associated with impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Jaw Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Genu Valgum: An inward slant of the thigh in which the knees are close together and the ankles far apart. Genu valgum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasias (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; HURLER SYNDROME); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.