Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.PaperPsychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Schools: Educational institutions.OhioSchool Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.New York CityBrazilSingaporePorcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Wrongful Life: In civil law a cause of action which alleges that a defendant has wrongfully caused a child to be born.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Antitrust Laws: Those federal and state laws, and their enforcement, that protect trade and commerce from unlawful restraints and monopolies or unfair business practices.National Health Insurance, United StatesPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.