Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.
The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.
Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).
Abnormal increase in the interorbital distance due to overdevelopment of the lesser wings of the sphenoid.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
The use of balloon CATHETERS to remove emboli by retraction of the balloon that is inflated behind the EMBOLUS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).
Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.
A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.
The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.