Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy: Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty: A surgical procedure or KERATOPLASTY involving selective stripping and replacement of diseased host DESCEMET MEMBRANE and CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM with a suitable and healthy donor posterior lamella. The advantage to this procedure is that the normal corneal surface of the recipient is retained, thereby avoiding corneal surface incisions and sutures.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Collagen Type VIII: A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Mice, Inbred BALB CStem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Mice, Inbred C57BLOrgan Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Heart-Lung Transplantation: The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.