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Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Conversion to Open Surgery: Changing an operative procedure from an endoscopic surgical procedure to an open approach during the INTRAOPERATIVE PERIOD.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Aortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Operative Time: The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.Colorectal Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Trigger Finger Disorder: A painful disability in the hand affecting the finger or thumb. It is caused by mechanical impingement of the digital flexor tendons as they pass through a narrowed retinacular pulley at the level of the metacarpal head. Thickening of the sheath and fibrocartilaginous metaplasia can occur, and nodules can form. (From Green's Operative Hand Surgery, 5th ed, p2137-58).Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Laparoscopes: ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Ureteral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Esophagostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Hand-Assisted Laparoscopy: Placement of one of the surgeon's gloved hands into the ABDOMINAL CAVITY to perform manual manipulations that facilitate the laparoscopic procedures.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial: Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Learning Curve: The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Herniorrhaphy: Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.Diskectomy, Percutaneous: Percutaneous excision of a herniated or displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISC by posterolateral approach, always remaining outside the spinal canal. Percutaneous nucleotomy was first described by Hijikata in Japan in 1975. In 1985 Onik introduced automated percutaneous nucleotomy which consists in percutaneous aspiration of the nucleus pulposus. It is carried out under local anesthesia, thus reducing the surgical insult and requiring brief hospitalization, often performed on an outpatient basis. It appears to be a well-tolerated alternative to surgical diskectomy and chymopapain nucleolysis.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Ureteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Fundoplication: Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.RomaniaLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Femoracetabular Impingement: A pathological mechanical process that can lead to hip failure. It is caused by abnormalities of the ACETABULUM and/or FEMUR combined with rigorous hip motion, leading to repetitive collisions that damage the soft tissue structures.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Peptic Ulcer Perforation: Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hernia, Ventral: A hernia caused by weakness of the anterior ABDOMINAL WALL due to midline defects, previous incisions, or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Ventral hernias include UMBILICAL HERNIA, incisional, epigastric, and spigelian hernias.Fractures, Open: Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Spinal DiseasesLimb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.