Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Consumer Product SafetyElectronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Paratuberculosis: A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Wrongful Life: In civil law a cause of action which alleges that a defendant has wrongfully caused a child to be born.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Resource Guides: Works listing and describing various sources of information, from multiple media or in different formats, on a given subject.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Health Planning Organizations: Organizations involved in all aspects of health planning activities.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.United StatesNutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Oleandomycin: Antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces antibioticus.Streptomyces antibioticus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Child Reactive Disorders: Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.EuropeSexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.