Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Colposcopes: Instruments inserted into the vagina for examination of the tissues of the vagina and cervix by means of a magnifying lens.Uterine Cervical Dysplasia: Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Electrosurgery: Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Conization: The excision of a cone of tissue, especially of the CERVIX UTERI.Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.DNA Probes, HPV: DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Condylomata Acuminata: Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Clinical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel to improve the quality of patient care and outcomes. The clinical audit was formally introduced in 1993 into the United Kingdom's National Health Service.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)ArchivesTreatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.