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Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Gastric Outlet Obstruction: The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction: Functional obstruction of the COLON leading to MEGACOLON in the absence of obvious COLONIC DISEASES or mechanical obstruction. When this condition is acquired, acute, and coexisting with another medical condition (trauma, surgery, serious injuries or illness, or medication), it is called Ogilvie's syndrome.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Diverticulosis, Colonic: A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Bronchial DiseasesDiverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Sigmoid Diseases: Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Tracheal StenosisPalliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction: A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Tracheal DiseasesDigestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Colitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Diatrizoate Meglumine: A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Intestinal Atresia: Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.Ileus: A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Dacryocystorhinostomy: Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Hernia: Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Colonic Pouches: Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Imino AcidsVena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Esophageal Stenosis: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Intestinal Volvulus: A twisting in the intestine (INTESTINES) that can cause INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hirschsprung Disease: Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Mice, Inbred C57BLDyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Rhinometry, Acoustic: Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Meckel Diverticulum: A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular: A pathological constriction occurring in the region below the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cecal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Hernia, Abdominal: A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mesocolon: The fold of peritoneum by which the COLON is attached to the posterior ABDOMINAL WALL.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Methylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.