Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
Substance Abuse Detection
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
An adrenergic neuron-blocking drug similar in effects to GUANETHIDINE. It is also noteworthy in being a substrate for a polymorphic cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Persons with certain isoforms of this enzyme are unable to properly metabolize this and many other clinically important drugs. They are commonly referred to as having a debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase polymorphism.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)
A MEPERIDINE congener used as an antidiarrheal, usually in combination with ATROPINE. At high doses, it acts like morphine. Its unesterified metabolite difenoxin has similar properties and is used similarly. It has little or no analgesic activity.
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Delivery of Health Care
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Fire Extinguishing Systems
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.