A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Clostridium botulinum type A
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Clostridium botulinum type E
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
ADP Ribose Transferases
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Clostridium botulinum type B
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
Clostridium botulinum type D
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Clostridium botulinum type F
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.
Amino Acid Sequence
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Sequence Analysis, DNA
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Clostridium botulinum type C
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 18.104.22.168 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 22.214.171.124 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 126.96.36.199 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 188.8.131.52 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Botulinum Toxins, Type A
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Lethal Dose 50
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Type C Phospholipases
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 184.108.40.206), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Colony Count, Microbial
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
rhoB GTP-Binding Protein
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.