Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Metacercariae: Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Cholecystolithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Cellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.PhenylenediaminesHelminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cordyceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Russia (Pre-1917)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).