Clinical Governance: A framework through which the United Kingdom's National Health Service organizations are accountable for continually improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish. (Scally and Donaldson, BMJ (4 July 1998): 61-65)Trustees: Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Interdepartmental Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutional departments.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Hospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Group Practice: Any group of three or more full-time physicians organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of health care services, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Great BritainOrganizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Total Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.EnglandBenchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.