The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)
An independent agency within the Executive Branch of the United States Government. It administers a national social insurance program whereby employees, employers, and the self-employed pay contributions into pooled trust funds. Part of the contributions go into a separate hospital insurance trust fund for workers at age 65 to provide help with medical expenses. Other programs include the supplemental social security income program for the aged, blind, and disabled and the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance Program. It became an independent agency March 31, 1995. It had previously been part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, later the Department of Health and Human Services. (From United States Government Manual, 1994-95)
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Management of the acquisition, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of health information.
Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Individuals professionally qualified in the management of patients' records. Duties may include planning, designing, and managing systems for patient administrative and clinical data, as well as patient medical records. The concept includes medical record technicians.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Uniform method for health care providers and medical suppliers to report professional services, procedures, and supplies. It consists of alphanumeric codes and modifiers for the use of all public and private health insurers. It is developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.
Pathological developments in the CECUM.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
The signs of life that may be monitored or measured, namely pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood pressure.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.