Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Conservation of Natural Resources
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Oceans and Seas
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html, accessed 5/12/2020)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Plant Physiological Phenomena
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
High temperature weather exceeding the average and of several weeks duration. Extreme heat is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Heat Stress Disorders
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Organisms that live in water.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
The climate of a very small area.
The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.
Maps as Topic
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
Geographic Information Systems
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging
Ecological and Environmental Phenomena
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.