Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Patulin: 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Citrinin: Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Nephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Isocoumarins: Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.ResorcinolsFood Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.EstersPolyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.