Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Fertility Agents, Male: Compounds which increase the capacity of the male to induce conception.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Vitaceae: A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for the VITIS genus, the source of grapes.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.GlucosamineCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Rationalization: A defense mechanism operating unconsciously, in which the individual attempts to justify or make consciously tolerable, by plausible means, feelings, behavior, and motives that would otherwise be intolerable.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).North CarolinaPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Oncogene Protein v-maf: An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Ape Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pharmacognosy: The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Cyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.