Sex Chromosome Disorders
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21
Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8
Chromosomes, Human, Y
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes, Human, X
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12
Chromosomes, Human, 1-3
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.
Neural Networks (Computer)
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.