Chorismic Acid: A cyclohexadiene carboxylic acid derived from SHIKIMIC ACID and a precursor for the biosynthesis of UBIQUINONE and the AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Rhizomelic: An autosomal recessive form of CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis and impaired peroxisomes. Patients have shortened proximal limbs and severely disturbed endochondral bone formation. The metabolic defects associated with the impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. (From Scriver et al, Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 6th ed, p1497)Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Shikimic Acid: A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Chorismate Mutase: An isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of chorismic acid to prephenic acid. EC 5.4.99.5.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome: A sex-linked recessive disorder affecting multiple systems including the EYE, the NERVOUS SYSTEM, and the KIDNEY. Clinical features include congenital CATARACT; MENTAL RETARDATION; and renal tubular dysfunction (FANCONI SYNDROME; RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS; X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA or vitamin-D-resistant rickets) and SCOLIOSIS. This condition is due to a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase leading to defects in PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL metabolism and INOSITOL signaling pathway. (from Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.Sulfamethazine: A sulfanilamide anti-infective agent. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial action similar to other sulfonamides.Candicidin: Mixture of antifungal heptaene macrolides from Streptomyces griseus or Actinomyces levoris used topically in candidiasis. The antibiotic complex is composed of candicidins A, B, C, and D, of which D is the major component.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Transketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)