Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Biliary Tract Diseases
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Anemia, Sickle Cell
Bile Acids and Salts
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Bile Duct Diseases
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Common Bile Duct
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.