Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Lonicera: A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glucosides.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Cynara scolymus: A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Forsythia: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.CinnamatesCrataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Depsides: Phenolic benzoic acid esters.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Scopolia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE after which the compound SCOPOLAMINE HYDROBROMIDE got its name.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.PicratesGlucosidesAntioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Acanthopanax: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Echinacea: A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksMelissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Lactalbumin: A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.