Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pleural DiseasesThoracoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the pleural cavity.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Rib FracturesNeural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bronchial Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mass Chest X-Ray: X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Flail Chest: A complication of multiple rib fractures, rib and sternum fractures, or thoracic surgery. A portion of the chest wall becomes isolated from the thoracic cage and exhibits paradoxical respiration.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.