Cervical Rib: A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.Cervical Rib Syndrome: A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous CERVICAL RIB or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214)Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.MarylandRib FracturesManagement Information Systems: Systems designed to provide information primarily concerned with the administrative functions associated with the provision and utilization of services; also includes program planning, etc.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Clinical Laboratory Services: Organized services provided by MEDICAL LABORATORY PERSONNEL for the purpose of carrying out CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES used for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.Occupational Therapy: Skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It assists in the development of skills needed for independent living.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Hypohidrosis: Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Pancoast Syndrome: A condition caused by an apical lung tumor (Pancoast tumor) with involvement of the nearby vertebral column and the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Symptoms include pain in the shoulder and the arm, and atrophy of the hand.Granuloma, Lethal Midline: A condition that is characterized by inflammation, ulceration, and perforation of the nose and the PALATE with progressive destruction of midline facial structures. This syndrome can be manifested in several diseases including the nasal type of EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA and GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Teratology: A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Benzyl CompoundsTick Control: Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.AxisShoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Rats, Inbred F344Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Tendon Entrapment: Narrowing or stenosis of a tendon's retinacular sheath. It occurs most often in the hand or wrist but can also be found in the foot or ankle. The most common types are DE QUERVAIN DISEASE and TRIGGER FINGER DISORDER.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Potamogetonaceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).