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Cerebrosides: Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)Cerebroside-Sulfatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cerebroside 3-sulfate (sulfatide) to yield a cerebroside and inorganic sulfate. A marked deficiency of arylsulfatase A, which is considered the heat-labile component of cerebroside sulfatase, has been demonstrated in all forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.8.Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic: An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.SulfatasesSteryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.Iduronate Sulfatase: An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 3.1.6.13.Chondro-4-Sulfatase: An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 3.1.6.12.Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Chondroitinsulfatases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.Mucopolysaccharidosis II: Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency Disease: An inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of sulfur-containing lipids (sulfatides) and MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES. Excess levels of both substrates are present in urine. This is a disorder of multiple sulfatase (arylsulfatases A, B, and C) deficiency which is caused by the mutation of sulfatase-modifying factor-1. Neurological deterioration is rapid.Ichthyosis, X-Linked: Chronic form of ichthyosis that is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait carried on the X-chromosome and transmitted to the male offspring. It is characterized by severe scaling, especially on the extremities, and is associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency.Glucosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Mucopolysaccharidosis IV: Genetic disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism characterized by skeletal abnormalities, joint instability, development of cervical myelopathy, and excessive urinary keratan sulfate. There are two biochemically distinct forms, each due to a deficiency of a different enzyme.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Ichthyosis: Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.Termitomyces: A paleotropical genus of fungi in the family Tricholomataceae. They are obligate symbionts of termites.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.N-Acylsphingosine Galactosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactose and N-acylsphingosine to D-galactosylceramide and UDP.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Mucopolysaccharidosis with excessive CHONDROITIN SULFATE B in urine, characterized by dwarfism and deafness. It is caused by a deficiency of N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-4-SULFATASE (arylsulfatase B).Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)HexosesMyelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Saposins: A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Asterias: A genus of STARFISH in the family Asteriidae. One species, Asterias rubens, is the most common in the north-east Atlantic region.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Psychosine: An intermediate in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides. It is formed by reaction of sphingosine with UDP-galactose and then itself reacts with fatty acid-Coenzyme A to form the cerebroside.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Sphingolipidoses: A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Sterculia: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. S. urens is the source of KARAYA GUM which is sometimes called Indian tragacanth, which is different from the true TRAGACANTH which comes from ASTRAGALUS GUMMIFER.Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.