Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Fenbendazole: Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Haemonchiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.Ascaridia: A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Mebendazole: A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Trichostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Bephenium Compounds: Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).Ostertagia: A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Morantel: Antinematodal agent used mainly for livestock.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Trichostrongylosis: Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Trichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Pyrantel Pamoate: Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Ascaridida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Aminoacetonitrile: Cyanomethylamine.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Teucrium: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain teuscordonin. There have been reports of hepatoxicity by this genus.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Ascaridoidea: A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Metastrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.Annona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Heligmosomatoidea: A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which were formerly considered a part of TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA. It includes the following genera: Heligmosomum, NEMATOSPIROIDES, and NIPPOSTRONGYLUS. The hosts are rodents.Pyrvinium CompoundsLarva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ostertagiasis: A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.Flacourtiaceae: The Indian plum plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae class Magnoliopsida, that are tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Oesophagostomum: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.Hymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Loganiaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. They have leaflike appendages at the base of the leafstalks, have terminal flower clusters. Petals have four or five overlapping lobes and the fruit is a capsule containing winged or wingless seeds.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Ascaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Niclosamide: An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Cymbopogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE which is a source of citronella oil and lemongrass oil.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Combretaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly trees and shrubs growing in warm areas.Melia azedarach: A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).EcuadorVerbascum: A plant genus of the family SCROPHULARIACEAE.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Nippostrongylus: A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Hymenolepis nana: The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Necator americanus: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Alpinia: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Clausena: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain anethole and CARBAZOLES.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Clerodendrum: A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. Inerminosides (iridoid glycosides); colebroside A; STEROIDS; STEROLS; terpenoid glucosides; and abietane DITERPENES have been found in this genus.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Taeniasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.PhenylenediaminesOocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Theileria parva: A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Acetogenins: Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES and oxygenated to form tetrahydrofuran and lactone rings along the length of the chain. They are found in ANNONACEAE and other PLANTS. Related compounds cyclize to MACROLIDES.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Acanthocephala: A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.