A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
A genus of coccoid bacteria in the family PLANOCOCCACEAE. They are widely distributed in various habitats including sea water, freshwater ponds, cyanobacterial mats, and in marine animals.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.