Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Chymopapain: A cysteine endopeptidase isolated from papaya latex. Preferential cleavage at glutamic and aspartic acid residues. EC Immobilizing Agents: Chemical substances with sperm immobilizing activity used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Vernonia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC The showy mistletoe plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. This includes parasitic tropical plants with haustoria connecting to the hosts. The leaves are opposite and thick. The flowers (4-7) have both calyx and corolla. The fruit is a berry with one seed.Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide: A chromogenic substrate that permits direct measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g., papain and trypsin, by colorimetry. The substrate liberates p-nitroaniline as a chromogenic product.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques: The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.National Health Planning Information Center (U.S.): A center in the HEALTH RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION Division of Planning Methods and Technology which provides access to current information on health planning and resources development.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.PakistanSagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Ulmus: A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Tymoviridae: A family of icosahedral, non-enveloped, RNA plant viruses comprised of three genera: TYMOVIRUS, Marafivirus and Maculavirus.CaliforniaContusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Lawsonia Plant: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE that is the source of henna and has cytotoxic activity.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.ChicagoCrassulaceae: The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Asimina: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain asitrocin, asitrilobins, and other tetrahydrofuran acetogenins.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Viridiplantae: A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).Caricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Streptophyta: A phylum of green plants comprising CHAROPHYCEAE (streptophyte green algae) and EMBRYOPHYTA (land plants).Tropaeolum: A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.