An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Making an incision in the STERNUM.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the TRICUSPID VALVE. This hinders the emptying of RIGHT ATRIUM leading to elevated right atrial pressure and systemic venous congestion. Tricuspid valve stenosis is almost always due to RHEUMATIC FEVER.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.