Carcinoma, Basal Cell
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
Hereditary disorder consisting of multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and multiple skeletal defects, e.g., frontal and temporoparietal bossing, bifurcated and splayed ribs, kyphoscoliosis, fusion of vertebrae, and cervicothoracic spina bifida. Genetic transmission is autosomal dominant.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Carcinoma in Situ
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms, Basal Cell
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.
Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Tumor Markers, Biological
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A surgical technique used primarily in the treatment of skin neoplasms, especially basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. This procedure is a microscopically controlled excision of cutaneous tumors either after fixation in vivo or after freezing the tissue. Serial examinations of fresh tissue specimens are most frequently done.
Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating
Carcinoma, Small Cell
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Cell Line, Tumor
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Carcinoma, Merkel Cell
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Carcinoma, Large Cell
Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells
Receptors, Cell Surface
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Loss of Heterozygosity
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular
Carcinoma, Skin Appendage
A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
Genes, Tumor Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Tissue Array Analysis
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
Gene Expression Profiling
In Situ Hybridization
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9
Carcinoma, Giant Cell
An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Lutheran Blood-Group System
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
Carcinoma, Lewis Lung
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Combined Modality Therapy
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia
A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.
A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Coloration of the skin.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Sensitivity and Specificity
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, causing cutaneous lesions in humans. Infections exist in latent form in the general population and are activated under conditions of IMMUNOSUPPRESSION.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Neoplasms, Second Primary
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.