Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Absorbent Pads: Pads made of various materials used for personal hygiene usually for absorbing URINE or FECES. They can be worn as underpants or pants liners by various age groups, from NEWBORNS to the ELDERLY. Absorbent pads can be made of fluff wood pulp and HYDROGEL absorbent covered with viscose rayon, polyester, polypropylene, or POLYETHYLENE coverstock.Diaper Rash: A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent.Diapers, Adult: Absorbent pads designed to be worn as underpants or pants liners by adults.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Diapers, Infant: Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Tin: A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Triaziquone: Alkylating antineoplastic agent used mainly for ovarian tumors. It is toxic to skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and kidneys.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsPolyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 18.104.22.168.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 22.214.171.124.PhenylenediaminesResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.