Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Methylophilaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Leptothrix: A genus of gram-negative, sheathed, rod-shaped bacteria in the family COMAMONADACEAE.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.MiningMetals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Burkholderiaceae: A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Capparaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that are mostly herbs and shrubs growing in warm arid regions. Several produce GLUCOSINOLATES.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.QuinuclidinesArizonaBrazilTourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)MexicoBiota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Santalaceae: A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Mortierella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Neisseria elongata: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA consisting of short chains of rods. It has been isolated from the PHARYNX of healthy individuals and patients with ENDOCARDITIS. There are several recognized subspecies.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.EuropeHealth Planning Organizations: Organizations involved in all aspects of health planning activities.Acidithiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans: A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.