Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Pentanones: 5-carbon straight-chain or branched-chain ketones.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Benzene DerivativesBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Copper Sulfate: A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tartrazine: An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedPotassium Dichromate: Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Triallate: A pre-emergence, selective herbicide for the control of wild oats in various crops.Chlordan: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Endrin: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Heptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.PortugalWater Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Chemical EngineeringEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.