Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Schools: Educational institutions.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Menu PlanningMultilevel Analysis: The statistical manipulation of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. It includes clustered data, such as a sample of subjects within a group of schools. Prevalent in the social, behavioral sciences, and biomedical sciences, both linear and nonlinear regression models are applied.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fiji: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Jamaica: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.JapanSingle-Parent Family: A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.