Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Bones of Lower Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Limb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Tibial Arteries: The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Atherectomy: Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFemur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.ShoesThrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.AmputeesTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Tibial FracturesEmbolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Compression Bandages: Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Foot Ulcer: Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.OsteomyelitisBraces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Leg Dermatoses: A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Vena Cava Filters: Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.Dependent Ambulation: To move about or walk on foot with the use of aids.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Compartment Syndromes: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Postthrombotic Syndrome: A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.