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Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Candida tropicalis: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Central Venous Catheters: Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.MycosesRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Infection Control Practitioners: Physicians or other qualified individuals responsible for implementing and overseeing the policies and procedures followed by a health care facility to reduce the risk of infection to patients and staff.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.MichiganCandidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.TriazolesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Silver Sulfadiazine: Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Actinomycetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Aerococcus: A genus of gram-positive cocci in the family AEROCOCCACEAE, occurring as airborne saprophytes.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.TokyoCambodiaAcinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Trichosporonosis: Fungal infections caused by TRICHOSPORON that may become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST. Clinical manifestations range from superficial cutaneous infections to systemic lesions in multiple organs.South DakotaSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.United StatesBrazilPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.KuwaitDaptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Staphylococcus hominis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.MinnesotaAconitic AcidDrug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.GreeceNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.