Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Bites and StingsMastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Jaw Relation Record: A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Bites, Human: Bites inflicted by humans.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Overbite: A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Spider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Open Bite: A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Dental Occlusion, Centric: Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Cineradiography: Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Fingersucking: Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Carnivory: The consumption of animal flesh.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Retrognathia: A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Pacifiers: Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)LizardsPharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Tick Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of TICKS.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.