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Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.AcrylatesAcrylic ResinsMaterials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Photoinitiators, Dental: Chemical compound used to initiate polymerization of dental resins by the use of DENTAL CURING LIGHTS. It absorbs UV light and undergoes decomposition into free radicals that initiate polymerization process of the resins in the mix. Each photoinitiator has optimum emission spectrum and intensity for proper curing of dental materials.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Microchip Analytical Procedures: The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Denture Liners: Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Dental Restoration Wear: Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.PolyvinylsFood Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Fluorocarbon PolymersToluidinesAdsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Dentin Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Tissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Deaf-Blind Disorders: The absence of both hearing and vision.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Trimethyl Ammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Histocytological Preparation Techniques: Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Portulaca: A plant genus of the family PORTULACACEAE.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Tissue Expansion Devices: Devices used to generate extra soft tissue in vivo to be used in surgical reconstructions. They exert stretching forces on the tissue and thus stimulate new growth and result in TISSUE EXPANSION. They are commonly inflatable reservoirs, usually made of silicone, which are implanted under the tissue and gradually inflated. Other tissue expanders exert stretching forces by attaching to outside of the body, for example, vacuum tissue expanders. Once the tissue has grown, the expander is removed and the expanded tissue is used to cover the area being reconstructed.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Tooth Preparation: Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Dibutyl Phthalate: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Testosterone Propionate: An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Grifola: A member of the AGARICALES known for edible MUSHROOMS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Methoxychlor: An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Genista: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of broom may be confused with Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Denture Cleansers: Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.PropaneCarbanilidesBiomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.