Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.SwedenSiblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Fructose Intolerance: An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Ape Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).