Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Oxalobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. There are at least eight genera.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Comamonadaceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Spinal NeoplasmsEquipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Nervous System Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Alexia, Pure: Loss of the power to comprehend written materials despite preservation of the ability to write (i.e., alexia without agraphia). This condition is generally attributed to lesions that "disconnect" the visual cortex of the non-dominant hemisphere from language centers in the dominant hemisphere. This may occur when a dominant visual cortex injury is combined with underlying white matter lesions that involve crossing fibers from the occipital lobe of the opposite hemisphere. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p483)Methandriol: A synthetic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1188)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.