Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Neoplasms composed of tissue of the mesothelium, the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, which lines the body cavity of the embryo. In the adult it forms the simple squamous epithelium which covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura). The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in these organs. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.