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Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.BibliographyBibliography, National: A bibliography which lists all the books and other publications published, or distributed in significant quantity, in a particular country. Sometimes the term is used with respect to the new publications published within a specific period, and sometimes with respect to all those published within a lengthy period of many years. It is also used to indicate a bibliography of publications about a country (whether written by its nationals or not) and those written in the language of the country as well as those published in it. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Bibliography, Descriptive: The area of bibliography which makes known precisely the material conditions of books, i.e., the full name of the author, the exact title of the work, the date and place of publication, the publisher's and printer's names, the format, the pagination, typographical particulars, illustrations, and the price, and for old books, other characteristics such as the kind of paper, binding, etc. It is also called analytical bibliography and physical bibliography. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.HistoryNational Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Libraries, DentalEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Libraries, MedicalInformation Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.United StatesPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.History of MedicineClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.ComputersMedicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Great BritainInjections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Defensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Philosophy, MedicalOral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Disaster Medicine: Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.