Bethanidine: A guanidinium antihypertensive agent that acts by blocking adrenergic transmission. The precise mode of action is not clear.Bretylium CompoundsMethylguanidine: A product of putrefaction. Poisonous.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Protriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Isocarboxazid: An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Serotonin Syndrome: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)HistoryHypertension, Malignant: A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.DelawareCycloheptanesSister Mary Joseph's Nodule: Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)